Friday, January 29, 2010


sibuk. macam amat.
letih. sungguh.

Saturday, January 16, 2010

Chemistry 5.3 production of alcohol

baca tak masuk2 ni yang nak kena buat mcm ni ni...
ok, zawani.

Alkohol tu apa?

Alkohol tu..alkene+H20. nak kenal dia, dia ada satu carbon atom yang akan bersambung dengan Oxygen & Hydrogen. C-OH. ha, lebih kurang mcm tu lah. kalau ada double bond kat O tu dah lain ok. tu dah jadik carboxyl.

Nak buat ethanol, ada dua cara. 20% dihasilkan dari ethene daripada crude oil atau natural gas. cara ni jugak dipanggil synthetic ethanol.
yang baki lagi 80% tu pulak guna fermentation dari glucose. sumber dia sama ada pakai anggur atau grains mcm sayur atau grains. anggur tu guna direct dari sumber. kalau sayur & grains tu pulak depa kena undergo hydrolysis dulu.

Proses nak buat alkohol ni pulak, kalau guna grains mcm barli atau kanji mcm ni:
1. grains tu must be soaked in water.
2. bila dah masuk dalam air, seeds tu akan germinate. Masa ni, enzim2 akan diproduce. enzim2 ni la yang catalyse hydrolysis of starch molecules into glucose.

polysaccharides-->disaccharides--> monosaccharides

hydrolysis of polysaccharides to disaccharides
[C6H10O5] + 1/2nC12H22O11

hydrolysis of disaccharides to monosaccharides (glucose)
C12H22O11 + H2O --> 2C6H12O6

3. pastu, yeast akan dimasukkan dalam mixture tu.
4. glucose2 yang dah terhasil tu akan pass through cell wall masuk ke yeast cell. dalam yeast cell ni la ada enzim lagi, kali ni depa catalyse the fermentation of glucose jadi ethanol dan CO2.

fermentation of glucose to ethanol and CO2
C6H12O6 --> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

5.Produk selepas fermentation tu akan pass back out melalui cell wall.

Kalau starting material tu ialah jus anggur yang ada glucose, langkah yang ada hydrolysis tu dah tak diperlukan, jadi terus add yeast ja dan sambung dengan fermentation dalam yeast cell tu ja.

Nak buat alkohol dengan fermentation ni ada syarat2 dia.
1. optimum temperature : 20'C - 30'C. At temperature outside of rhis range, enzymes akan rendered either totally atau partly ineffective.

2. Kena cool-kan fermentation vassel utk elakkan excessively high temperature. benda ni necessary, sebab fermentation ni salah satu proses exothermic.

3.Oxygen mesti totally excluded from fermentation vassel. kenapa? sebab fermentation kan anaerobic process..jadi kalau ada O, takdak fermentation la..

4. a small amount of oxygen is needed for the growth of yeast cell.

kenapa point 3 n 4 mcm bercanggah ek... ok, kalau oxygen masuk fermentatation vassel, dia akan bring out ethanol kepada ethanoic acid..iaitu cuka.. dalam winemaking pulak, CO2 produced by fermentation akan menyediakan satu lapisan pelindung daripada oksigen.

tamat utk production if alcohol.
jangan lupa baca primary, secondary n tertiaty alcohols dan jugak oxidation of alcohol. :)

Wednesday, January 13, 2010

AUSMAT Career day 2009

On the 11 January this year, Career Day, an annual activity for every batch of intec's ausmat was held. It was very informative, though the fact that we just started Year 12 early this year, and we still have an obscure view about what is going to happen next in Sem 2 and 3, and of course whats waiting in OZ. The President of SAMSA board of Ausmat, Poji gave a talk how to and how important it is to survive Ausmat and score high TER, especially for courses which required TER of 90.00 and above, like mine. En Azlan, from Ausmat 6, now an architect in Hijjaz Kasturi gave us a talk about the embarkment to career world.

I never thought Career Day would be this fun, especially meeting the seniors part. totally inspiring. Why inspiring? Simply because they have been in our very shoes and therefore they understand very well how do we feel now and in the future 10 months. How great it is to see how they have successfully pursuing their studies in G8 universities.

One of the senior, Kak Izah, a medicine student in Monash (if im not mistaken) scored TER of 98. another biotech senior from Melbourne whose name i forgot, scored TER of 89. Lucky engineering students because lotsa seniors who showed up that day were engineering students (including Poji). And not too bad for my course, a senior showed up. He's studying in University of Curtin in Perth, pursuing his third year this march. i had quite a talk with him and it was very inspiring. Seriously. He opt for specialist maths during his ausmat and he once failed in spec maths, but still scored TER of above 90.00 (he refused to mention his exact TER).

Something to ponder, why do i see only Malay seniors?